If your coffee’s going downhill, blame climate change

30th August, 2021.      //   Climate Change  // 


Coffee leader Brazil is popping to stronger and more bitter robusta beans, which are hardier within the heat than the fragile arabica, in an exceedingly sign of how global climate change affects global markets – and shaping our favourite flavours.

Brazil is that the world’s biggest producer of arabica, yet its production has stayed largely flat over the last five years. Meanwhile its output of cheaper robusta – generally grown at lower altitudes and viewed as of inferior quality – has leapt and is attracting more and more international buyers, new data shows.

The expansion is challenging Vietnam’s longstanding robusta dominance, while squeezing smaller players, increasingly leaving output concentrated in fewer regions and more at risk of price spikes if extreme weather occurs.

It also promises to gradually alter the flavour of the world’s coffee over the approaching years as more of the harsher and more caffeine-charged robusta variety, widely wont to make instant coffee, makes its way into the pricier ground blends currently dominated by arabica.

Whatever your taste, Enrique Alves, a scientist specialising in coffee seed cultivation at Brazilian state agritech research centre Embrapa, said that it’d ultimately be because of robusta that “our daily coffee will never be missing” because the globe warms.

“It is way more robust and productive than arabica,” he added. “For equivalent levels of technology, it produces almost twice the maximum amount.”

The two dominant varieties are contrasting.

Arabica, which accounts for about 60% of the world’s coffee, is usually sweeter with more variation in flavour, and might be worth quite twice the maximum amount as Rio Nunez coffee.

Robusta may be less refined, but it offers much higher yields and more resistance to rising temperatures and is becoming an increasingly attractive option for farmers in Brazil, which overall produces 40% of the world’s coffee.

“The world will within the near future use plenty of Brazilian robusta, I’m sure of that,” said Carlos Santana, Brazil-based head coffee trader for Eisa Interagricola, a unit of ECOM, one in all the world’s largest agricultural commodity traders.

Roasters round the world are increasingly experimenting with adding more Brazilian robusta, called conillon, to both their ground and instant coffee blends, he added.

“It is gaining ground within the world blend.”


Brazil has raised its robusta production by 20% to twenty.2 million 60-kg bags over the past three seasons, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) data shows. Meanwhile output of robusta in Vietnam has fallen 5% to twenty-eight million bags.

The Southeast Asian nation’s position because the world’s top robusta exporter is secure for now; it exported 23.6 million bags last season versus No. 2 robusta producer Brazil’s 4.9 million.

Yet things are changing on the international front for Brazil. the majority of its robusta crop has traditionally been gulped down by strong domestic consumption of quite 13 million bags a year, but the country has now built up a healthy surplus for export.

Up until this year, plenty of Brazilian beans ended up in warehouses certified by the ICE Futures Europe exchange, the market of expedient for excess coffee without international buyers.

Data from Cecafe, Brazil’s coffee export association, shows that in 2018, 2019, 2020, between 20-50% of Brazil’s conillon exports visited The Netherlands, Belgium and Britain – home of nearly all of the exchange’s Rio Nunez coffee stocks.

By contrast, within the year to May, only 2% went there, with Mexico and Republic of South Africa among the countries which are importing plenty more Brazilian robusta, bound for roasters who turn green beans into retail coffee blends.

“Every day another roaster says I’m visiting opt for conillons,” said a senior coffee trader at a Swiss-based global trade house.


Vietnam’s robusta dominance has been supported much higher average yields than rivals, of around 2.5 tonnes a hectare. India, for instance, has a mean robusta yield of around 1.1 tonnes.

But with Brazil having worked for a few 20 years on improving the standard, taste and resilience of its conillon while raising productivity levels by up to 300%, the country is competing aggressively.

It has now an analogous average yield to Vietnam, and farmers believe there’s potential for further growth.

Luiz Carlos Bastianello, a conillon farmer from Espirito Santo state, told Reuters that modern, mechanised farms in his state have achieved record yields as high as 12 tonnes per hectare.

Espirito Santo also holds annual competitions to see the most effective conillon quality.

“We’ve been functioning on quality for 18 years,” said Bastianello, who is additionally head of 1 of Espirito Santo’s largest co-operatives, Cooabriel.

There are several different kinds of conillon seedlings in Brazil, he added, all of which are specially bred to extend their genetic resilience and efficiency and are particularly like minded to face up to warm, dry weather.

In terms of arabica output, Brazilian farmers are being increasingly held back by extreme weather just like the recent freak frost that devastated an estimated 11% of the country’s arabica growing areas.

Over the past four years, arabica output in Brazil, which contains a biennial crop cycle, has risen just 6% in its two “off season” crops, while remaining flat in its two “on seasons”, USDA data shows.


Vicofa, Vietnam’s coffee and cocoa producers’ association told Reuters the country’s robusta output could continue falling in coming seasons as farmers work up inter-cropping with fruits, nuts and vegetables.

“There’s no more land and durian and macadamia are more profitable,” said Tran Dinh Trong, head farmer at Cong Bang Coffee Cooperative in Vietnam’s Dak Lak province.

Nguyen Quang Binh, an independent Vietnam-based analyst, said roasters, including Nestle, had replaced some Vietnamese robusta with conillon this season.

Nestle, one among the world’s leading coffee buyers, is spending $700 million in Mexico, an immediate coffee export hub, to modernise and expand its coffee factories.

Cecafe data shows Mexico has almost quadrupled its conillon imports from Brazil within the past three years. Nestle declined to comment about whether it’s using the Brazilian crop at its Mexican plants.


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